Frames per Second (fps)



Acceptable / Needed / Suitable

Depend on what try to capture, for what purposes.

1 Occupancy, essentially only need kind-of snapshots at some suitable frequency
~3-4 Capturing people walking, flow, direction
~10 Capturing people running, flow, direction
6-15 Average range for almost 70 (68)%, surveillance applications, 2019
15 Average frame rate, surveillance applications, 2019
15 “As a rough rule of thumb, I’d make sure you had a frame every 3 feet or more. In the case above (30mph / 44 feet per second), that would mean 15fps. Of course, you still need to have a short shutter speed to eliminate blur.” (city traffic) []
24 Movies / videos in general.
30 Common standard in smartphones (2020)
60 Common high-alternative choice in smartphones (2020)
  • For “the movies”, professional or home
    • 24 fps if traditional cinema, the movies
    • 30 fps,

Frame Rate Guide for Video Surveillance – (PUBLIC)

License Plate Capture Shootout 2014 – (PUBLIC)

Shutter Speed & Frame Rate

“Key lesson: The frame rate per second can never be higher than the number of exposures per second. If you have a 1/4s shutter, the shutter / exposure only opens and closes 4 times per second (i.e., 1/4s + 1/4s + 1/4s + 1/4s = 1s). Since this only happens 4 times, you can only have 4 frames in that second.”

NOTE: The above is recommendation for what feels natural for humans.
One can definitely have both lower and higher frame rate per second than exposures per second.

lower – more blurriness in movements

higher – more sharp movements

good starting rule: shutter speed = double of frame rate, e.g. 1/60th of a second at 30 fps

Standards – Technologies

12, 15, 16, 18 8mm Film (1932-1970s~)
18, 24 Super 8mm Film (1965-1970s~)
24p progressive scan format
25 PAL television standard, VHS cameras (major technology succeeding 8 mm; Europe+SECAM-areas). Also Video8.
25p progressive broadcasting format, 25 fps
29.97 NTSC television standard (timecode can be drop-frame or non-drop-frame)
30p progressive broadcasting format, 30 fps
50p/60p progressive format, high-end HDTV, 50 fps / 60 fps respectively
progressive-scan formats standardized for UHDTV by the ITU-R BT.2020 recommendation.

  • ” The human visual system can process 10 to 12 images per second and perceive them individually, while higher rates are perceived as motion.”, doesn’t talk about fps but more focus on bitrates

  • 2 Mbps – streaming standard definition video (SD) ( 858 MiB/hr; 2000000*3600/(8*1024*1024) )
  • 5 Mbps – streaming High Definition video (HD) ( 2.15 GiB/hr, 5000000*3600/(8*1024*1024) )
  • 9 Mbps – streaming Ultra-High Definition video (UHD) ( 3.86 GiB/hr, 9000000*3600/(8*1024*1024) )